James Adair, (Cooper)

Male Abt 1715 - 1784  (~ 69 years)

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  • Name James Adair, (Cooper) 
    Suffix (Cooper) 
    Born Abt 1715 
    Gender Male 
    Died From 24 Feb 1784 to 12 Feb 1796  Of, Laurens, South Carolina Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I3686  Petersen-de Lanskoy
    Last Modified 18 Jan 2006 

    Father Adair 
    Family ID F1570  Group Sheet

    Family Eleanor,   d. Aft 12 Feb 1796, Of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Married From 1735 to 1745  Of, , Pennsylvania Find all individuals with events at this location 
     1. Joseph Adair,   b. Abt 1745, Of, , South Carolina Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Abt 1820  (Age ~ 75 years)
     2. Laferty Adair
     3. James Adair,   b. 15 May 1752, Of, , Pennsylvania Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 18 Aug 1818, Of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 66 years)
     4. John Adair,   d. 1782, Of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina Find all individuals with events at this location
     5. Hannah Adair,   b. Bef 1759, Of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Aft 1810, Of Duncan Creek, Laurens, South Carolina Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age > 52 years)
    Family ID F997  Group Sheet

  • Notes 
      1. From: Shawn & Lois Potter March 19, 2005: "If you can document each generation of your lineage to Thomas Adair (born about 1775 in Laurens County, SC), who married Rebecca Brown, then you have some very interesting ancestors. According to Margaret Brownlee’s manuscript (pp. 17-18), this Thomas Adair was the eldest son of Joseph Adair (born about 1755 or before), who married Sarah ____. This Joseph Adair was a son of James Adair, Sr. (born about 1715 and died before August 2, 1790) and Eleanor ____. This James Adair, Sr. was a brother of Joseph Adair, Sr. (born about 1718 and wrote his will on January 9, 1788), who married secondly Sarah Lafferty, and an uncle of Joseph Adair, Jr. (born about 1745 and wrote his will January 20, 1812), who married Elizabeth ____. All these James Adairs and Joseph Adairs can get very confusing. I am descended twice from James Adair, Sr. and Eleanor ____ and once from Joseph Adair, Sr. and Sarah Lafferty. But, I have a lot more research to do before I will feel like I have them figured out.
      I think Margaret Brownlee, the author of the manuscript I sent to you, has passed away. She would have been someone to consult."
      Also from Shawn: "Thanks for your note. I received Margaret Brownlee’s manuscript from either Lee Adair (wadair1@tampabay.rr.com) or Jett Hanna (jettplane@aol.com), both of whom have contributed notes to the Ancestry.com bulletin board for the Adair surname. I can only judge Margaret’s reliability from my use of this one manuscript. I have noticed a few mistakes that might be described as typos-a few obviously wrong dates and perhaps wrong names in her text. But, on the whole, I am very impressed with her work. She tried to document all her statements and she appears to have gained access to many original records. Her manuscript provides a radically better understanding of these families than existed before her work. Having said that, I do suspect she was wrong about her statement regarding the identity of James Adair the Indian trader. I am not yet certain, but I suspect that James Adair, who married Eleanor, was the Indian trader. I worked for about a year on this question, made some encouraging progress, and then had to take a break from my research. I know it seems unfair to say that I have such a suspicion and then to refuse to explain the basis for my suspicion; but I haven’t finished my work yet and I don’t have time right now to get back into it. Sorry. I have made a couple of trips to South Carolina to review records there. But, since I live in Virginia and I have other responsibilities, I cannot get down there as often as I would like. Some records are available on-line; but I imagine the answers to these, and other, questions about the Adair family will need to be sought in person in the South Carolina archives. But, I also imagine it will take a good deal of time to go through those records to build a strong case for whatever conclusions the records indicate, because so many of the records provide only a narrow slice of the picture." [Kerry's note: I do not believe James the Indian trader was associated with these Adairs.]

      2. FHL book 975.731 H2b “A Laurens County Sketchbook,? by Julian Stevenson Bolick [with my edited notes added in brackets]:
      Pg. 1: “An early record showing an original grant from George III to an ancestor of the Putnams of Gray Court has Laurens District in Craven County. ‘Wallace’s History of South Carolina? verifies the fact that a vast tract of land to the south of Virginia had been granted in 1663 by Charles II to eight British lords. Craven County, an extensive region covering most of South Carolina and parts of North Carolina, was a part of this sprawling acreage. In 1719 the people threw off the rule of the lords Proprietors, at which time the rights of the government and seven-eighths of the soil were ceded to the king. A later territorial separation placed Laurens in the Ninety Six District. On March 12, 1785, Laurens was made a separate district by an Act of the General Assembly…
      “Major Jonathan Downes, a colonial officer, headed a group of influential citizens commissioned to survey the territory. Gentleman Justices serving with Major Downes included James Montgomery [father of Rebecca Montgomery who married James Adair], Silvanus Walker, William Mitcherson and Charles Saxon. After the districting was made legal by the act of legislation, the justices were authorized ‘to build and keep in good repair at the charge of the county one good and convenient courthouse with necessary jury rooms and one good and sufficient county gaol together with a pillory, whipping post and stocks…?
      Pg. 3: “In 1790 the first government census taken after he adoption of the Constitution gave Laurens District 1,395 heads of families, with a total population of 9,337 including Negro freedmen and slaves. Laurens District, at that time, had a larger population than any other district above Newberry, the latter outnumbering Laurens by only a few hundredict on land bordering a creek later named for him.
      “On a return to Pennsylvania, Duncan influenced friends to come to Ninety Six and establish homesteads. He brought his own family and a pair of fine stud horses to pull the first wagon ever to roll over soil between the Broad and Saluda rivers. A lush growth of maiden cane bordering the creek had been the deciding factor for closing out his interests in Pennsylvania.
      “Two of the settlers to accompany him were David and Charles Little, for whom a community was named later. [David Little, 1767-1812, married Charity Adair].
      “Records show early land grants to Andrew McCrary (McCreary), Joseph Adair, Robert Hanna, Thomas Ewing, James Pollock, Thomas Logan and Thomas Craig - all in the group following Mr. Duncan to Carolina.?
      Pg. 5: “Still another friend of John Duncan was Joshua Palmer, a minister, who was so influential in the new community that when he moved to Indiana about 1828 he carried with him several families from his ecclesiastical society…
      “Robert Long was brought to this country at the age of five months, and at the age of two years was moved from Pennsylvania to the South. Robert’s father was a well known construction engineer, who by government contract in 1769 built Fort Charlotte on the Savannah River. [Robert Long, son of Daniel Long and Susannah Murdough; Susannah becomes Joseph Adair, Sr.’s second wife after Sarah Lafferty. Brownlee states Daniel died in 1767; is this a different Robert Long? On the other hand the British built the fort for the French and Indian War, which was 1756-1763-- so the 1769 date could be in error.]
      “From North Carolina James Williams came, having been attracted to the fertile lands bordering Little River where he pursued farming and engaged in a mercantile business. His plantation was named Mount Pleasant...? [James Williams was the subject of the James Williams Petition that most early Adair men signed.]
      Pg. 7: “After peace was secured by a vigorous and successful campaign against the Indians in 1761, the backwoodsmen of Carolina, as all people in the territory remote from Charles Town were called, gave their undivided time to replacing the temporary dwellings with more adequate homes. Many of the settlers had stopped in Virginia, but there it was made clear that only those who belonged to the Established Church were welcome; consequently, the ones believing strongly in freedom of worship came on into Carolina. They were principally Scotch-Irish and by no means adventurers…?
      Pg. 17: “LITTLESVILLE: One of the first centers of population in Laurens County was Littlesville on Duncan the Adairs, are buried in the old Duncan’s Creek Church cemetery. One of the gravestones bears the inscription ‘David Little, a native of Ireland.’ It is not known which of the early Adairs was the father of Charity, but the Adairs were in this section, probably as early as were the Little brothers. [Charity was the daughter of Joseph, son of the original Joseph.] Joseph B. [Sr.] came from Ireland in 1711 and died in Laurens County in 1801; Joseph, Jr., [son of Joseph Sr.] was born in Pennsylvania (the state from which John Duncan recruited settlers) in 1733 and died in Laurens in 1812; and John B. was born in Duncan’s Creek neighborhood in 1758 and died in Georgia [son of Joseph Jr. and brother to Charity]. Doctor W.S. Glenn of Spartanburg had in his possession in 1930 a map of a very early date which showed a community called Littlesville, about three miles from the historic Duncan’s Creek Church. The site is no longer listed even in the crossroad category, the majority of the people from this creek bank settlement having moved to the thriving community of Clinton…
      Pp. 42-43: “DUNCAN’S CREEK PRESBYTERIAN: One of the early utilitarian buildings was Duncan’s Creek Presbyterian Church in the rural section of Jacks Township. Servants of the John Duncan family had erected a brush arbor about 1753, at which time John Duncan had come into the area. A more permanent building of fieldstones was put up in 1764, and that date is visible in a cornerstone of the presently used building erected in 1842. The date 1764 was retained for historic purposes. The original granite walls, two feet in thickness, and the straight-backed pews of oak attest to the strong faith of the era and of the congregations of that particular church. In recent years the small-outmoded reed organ from the fieldstone church was given to Thornwell Home for Children in Clinton, where it is still used on occasions calling for a colonial atmosphere. During the Revolutionary War, the church building served as a place of protection for the people of that area. Often referred to as the mother of Presbyterian churches, it is the oldest church organization in the upper part of the state. Both Lisbon Presbyterian and Clinton First Presbyterian were started as mission extensions of the Duncan’s Creek Church. The first minister was the Reverend Hezekiah Balch, year 1776. In the same year John B. Kennedy was ordained and continued as pastor intermittently for fifty years. In 1788 the Duncan’s Creek Church became involved in serious difficulties. The majority of the members being canny old Scotchmen, theological discord was instituted over whether to use Rouse’s or Watt’s version of the Psalms. Sixty-three members seceded to form other churches. Although each plantation had its own burial ground, Duncan’s Creek church offered burial plots in its churchyard in 1776. Some of the ancient mounds have lost their identity, but one bearing the marking ‘Samuel Long, aged 19 years, November 15th, 1776, is still legible [brother of Robert Long and son of Daniel Long and Susannah Murdough]. Sixteen soldiers of the Revolution are buried in the churchyard. In October of 1964, Duncan’s Creek Presbyterian Church observed with appropriate ceremony the two-hundredth anniversary of its founding…?

      3. The name James Adair occurs often in Colonial America. It is apparent that there were more than one James Adair in colonial and Revolutionary War South Carolina. The following are miscellaneous references to the various James Adairs who may or may not be the same:
      A. Reviewed the several volumes of "Passenger and Immigration Lists Index" at the SLC FHL. Most all early Adair records are from 1800s or of no value. There are no matching records for the earliest Joseph and James Adair. The records earlier than the Rev. War appear very spotty and incomplete. There are however these Adair entries coming thru Charleston, South Carolina. I don't believe these James are matches to our James; also, no telling what part of the South they may have ended up:
      Alexdan, 1767, 3627.37 p187
      Alice, 1767, 3627.37 p184
      James, 1763-1764, 3627.37 p67
      James, 1767, 3627.37 p187
      Jane, 1763-1764, 3627.37 p67
      Jane, 1767, 3627.37 p70
      Margaret, 1767, 3627.37 p187
      Mary, 1767, 3627.37 p187

      B. The book "A Compilation of the Original Lists of Protestant Immigrants to South Carolina 1763 -1773," compiled by Janie Revill, 1981, FHL 975.7 R326, p. 13, lists a James Adair as an "Irish Protestant lately arrived on the encouragement of the bounty" with payment of passage done through certificates granted to "James Egger Commander of the ship they came over on." No other Adairs listed; however, other name entries include both males and females from which we can conclude James immigrated alone. I inadvertantly did not copy the page with the date; however, the succeding entry is dated 2 Mar 1764 in the Council Journal 30, page 42-45. May be same James as listed in previous note "A" above. Our James already had children so it seems unlikely that this James is ours.

      C. See notes under James father ____ Adair in which I include some references to William Adair of Waxhaw, South Carolina in Chester County. William was the father to John Adair who later achieved noteriety in the War of 1812 and as Governor and Senator of Kentucky. William had three sons named John, James, and William Jr. who fought in the Revolutionary War. James Adair of Chester County area shows up in same area after the War and is not our James.

      D. Citation unknown but the following is from a photocopy in my possession from some privately published family history: "General Francis Marion -- One of the great Partisan Leaders of South Carolina, was of Huguenot descent.He was known as the Swamp Fox, because he operated in the swampy forests of the state. his strategy was to dash out quickly with his superbly mounted men, surprise and cut the enemy's supply lines, kill their men and rellease American prisoners, then swifly back again to 'the thick reccess of the deep swamps.'" The author then lists a few of Marion's soldiers including a "Jas. Adair." It should be noted that Marion was from the lower country of South Carolina and operated in the same area; our Adairs were in the upper country. Our James was probably too old to be the James involved; however maybe his son James or his nephew James (son of Joseph, Sr.) could have been involved. Most of Marion's men were irregulars from the countryside as militia and not necessarily trained soldiers. The movie "The Patriot" with Mel Gibson is loosely based on elements of General Marion.
      The website http://www.geocities.com/BourbonStreet/1786/swampfox.html?200529#marionsmen lists four Adairs who served as officers: James, John, Joseph, and William. All four are listed as Lieutenants. The site references "Kinfolks" 1269, 1236, and 1233 respectively for the first three Adairs and William has the reference of De Saussure's "List of South Carolina Officers in the War of the Revolution" as published in the Charleston Year Book of 1893, page 209. Listed as non-commissioned officers and privates are the following Adairs with references as noted:
      Alexander Adair, stub indent S347: served in militia.
      Benjamin Adair, stub indent S348; Annuitant's Claims: served in the militia, last a horse in service, and was killed on 10 mar 1781.
      Isaac Adair, stub indent S346; Annuitant's Claims: served in Picken's Brigade (one source says Marion's Brigade) and was killed in April 1871.
      James Adair, stub indent Y1522.
      James Adair, Jr.
      William Adair.
      I have not seen these references and cannot yet comment on who these Adairs are in context of our Laurens County Adairs; but they do appear to be involved.

      4. Migration of Adairs to America began during the early mid-1700s. They came from the Ulster counties in Northern Ireland, and from Galloway, Scotland, wrote Dr. James Barnett Adair in his 1924 book "Adair History and Genealogy." Adair's studies indicate these Adairs stopped in Maryland, New Jersey , and (in larger numbers) Pennsylvania, later scattering to South Carolina and other southern states. My research does place Joseph Adair in Delaware in association with some legal dealings for the Ramage family and also with a marriage record to Sarah Lafferty. By association, we have assumed his brother James may have been with him there, but this is conjecture without any proof.
      Adair in his book purports that a Thomas Adair (who came from county Antrim in Ireland about 1730 to Chester County, Pa.) was believed to have three sons (James, Joseph, William) born in Ireland and who traveled to this country as single men. He further indicates Thomas came with his sons to Laurens Co., South Carolina. However, researchers have not found proof to connect a Thomas Adair with James and Joseph Adair who acquired land patents in 1768 on waters of Duncan Creek, which is now in Laurens County, So. Carolina; neither have they found proof of an early Thomas Adair in Laurens Co. East of Adair's settlement in Laurens Co. was the better known Waxaw Colony, settled by other Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish and of which a William Adair and his son John Adair was a part. This John Adair later achieves note by becoming Governor of Kentucky. Their is no proof that James and Joseph of Laurens Co., had a brother William or that this William was that brother. On the other hand, we are somewhat confident that James and Joseph were brothers based on Mildred Brownlee's well-documented work quoted elsewhere in this database. It is also the author Adair's unsupported contention that Thomas was the son of Alexander Adair, and grandson of Rev. Patrick Adair of County Antrim in Ireland. Rev. Patrick married his cousin, Miss Jean Adair, daughter of the first Sir Robert Adair. Rev. Patrick Adair had four sons and one daughter. His third son was Alexander Adair, the father of the supposed pioneer Thomas Adiar. He states that the names of Alexaneder's wife, nor the name of the wife of Thomas Adair are known.
      It should be noted that Adair in his book cannot be relied on since there are many proven errors and Adair fails to document his sources if indeed he had any on these early Colonial American Adairs. We have no proof they came from Scotland or Ireland except for the ethnicity of their surname Adair and that most of the early settlers of upcountry South Carolina were indeed Scotch-Irish. There also appears to have been several families that came to S.C. from Pennsylvania that knew each there including the Ramages and possibly the McCrearys. Even though there is no extant immigration record for the Adairs from Europe, there may be some potential information that could be found in following some of these associated families of Ramages, Mc Crearys, or others overseas to see if they all possibly came together to America. One other large failing in Adair's book is his contention that the earliest James Adair was the famous author and Indian trader; this, however, this is very unlikely since our James was a cooper by trade and married to an Eleanor. Also, James the Indian trader, was constantly traveling throughout the Colonies and England, which doesn't jive with land transactions of our James in Laurens Co. This same James was fluent in Hebrew and Latin and an accomplished author which seems inconsistent with the other Adairs of Laurens County. It should also be noted that there were many Adairs in various parts of the Colonies in pre-revolutionary America and they were not necessarily closely related. The prenames of James and Joseph were common and not all James Adairs and so forth in America at that time were the same individual.
      Abstracts from Benjamin Franklin's "Pennsylvania Gazette 1728-1748," part 1, p. 216, compiled in 1975 by Kenneth Scott, shows that in 1739 the "following persons have unclaimed letters at Post Office in Philadelphia since November 2 past: Adaire, Joseph." On 20 Aug 1750 (Lancaster Co., Pa.), Joseph Adaire received a land warranty of 250 acres (from "Pennsylvania Archives," printed in 1897, vol. 24, 3rd Series, pg. 352).
      Mildred Brownlee, researcher for Marty Ramage and whom I quote elsewhere in this database of early Laurens Co. Adairs, noted that Joseph Adair was in Lancaster Co., Pa. in 1759 "when he was given power of attorney to sell land" for the Ramage family. Cumberland Co., Pa. showed Willam Adaire receiving a 150 acre warranty on 7 June 1750 (Vol. 4, 3rd Series, pg. 627).
      The date that Joseph Adair arrived in S.C. is unknown, but he is listed with those who united in 1763/1764 to build a house of worship (George Howe, D.D.'s "History of the Presb. church in SC). Brownlee's research included an article from the June 9, 1896, issue of the "Laurens Advertiser," celebrating the 130th anniversary of the Duncan Creek Presbyterian Church which was "organized in the summer of 1766."
      Even though I do not accept the following, I include it for reference only. Adairr, in his book, purports that the Indian trader, James Adair, was granted land in the Lauren's Co. area from King George II of Great Britain due to his commercial influence and patronage. This land was beyond the Indian frontier of that time. Supposedly James influenced his father Thomas and his two brothers, William and Joseph, to come from Pennsylvania to settle on the land. In going from the settlements to see this land, they found no roads, no surveys and no white settlements; just a virgin forest, but a beautiful country. So they cut out a road as they went in order that they might find their way out again. After examing the land, and selecting their loications, some of the party went to work to build houses and clear land for cultivation, while others were sent back to Pennsylvania after their livestock with they drove overland on foot from the Susquehanna River to Duncans Creek. Their corn mill was also brought along and set up for operation by nailing it to a tree. It was something like an old-fashion coffee mill. It was a curitosity to the Indians, who had been accustomed to grind their corn by rubbing it between two stones. This colony obtained their supply of corn the first year by trading with the Indians. My review of this story is that the land James and Joseph obtained in the 1760s was directly from the South Carolina government and at the same time in conjunction with each other which does not support James granting land to his family. Additionally Adair calls this settlement the Adair Colony which was never its name since Duncan had been the first into that part of the land and it was he that influenced many of his previous acquaintences from Pennsylvania to immigrate to South Carolina.
      During our country's struggle for independence, Adairs joined the American side from South Carolina with at least ten Adairs in the war.

      5. Jett Hanna [jettplane@aol.com] provided me on 8 Jul 2005 with a copy of his analysis of the Brownlee manuscript as follows. It mirrors my own understanding; however, anything with which I disagree I note in [brackets]. Jett entitles his paper as "Laurens County Area Adair Family Trees." It is broken down by three families: James Adair who married Eleanor, his brother Joseph who married Sarah Laferty, and a William of whom absolutely nothing is known except just his name on the Williams Petition and that Brownlee notes he died 1780-84 and that his estate was administered 1784 per Abbe Wills, p. 10. Text quoted as follows:
      "This tree is based on Early Adairs of Laurens County, South Carolina, by Mildred Brownlee. This was provided to me by W. Lee Adair, who obtained it from the Laurens County Public Library. Handwritten notes show a date of 1990 on Brownlee's manuscript. I have not examined these deeds personally. In some cases, notes and questions below are my own additions. This analysis seems to discredit some of the trees in the Adair History and Genealogy, and adds significantly to what is know of the Laurens area Adairs. I have not fully finished analyzing this work, and may have left out parts that are not as critical to my work.
      "Based on this work, it appears very possible that the elder Joseph Adair (m. Sarah, m. Susannah) and his brother James (m. Eleanor) settled in Laurens County at the same time, as suggested by the Adair History and Genealogy. I do not believe, however, that this James was the author of the book on the Indians and reputed patriarch of the Cherokee Adairs. This James was a cooper (barrel maker) according to the deeds. Modern editions of the History of the American Indians suggest that the author James Adair was a direct immigrant to South Carolina, but with no concrete evidence.
      "The Williams Petition: In the tree, LCW is Laurens County Wills; LCD is Laurens County Deeds. Also mentioned is the Williams petition. This petition is a significant document in analyzing the Laurens County Adairs. Published in the South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research, Vol. XV, No. 1 1987, p. 32-33, the original is #5767, Manuscript Department, Wm. Perkins Library at Duke University. The petition is in support of Colonel James Williams, a militia leader of the Patriots in the Laurens area (Little River Regiment). The petition, signed by members of the Little River Regiment, is directed to the Governor of South Carolina and the Privy Counsel, and attests to Williams’ devotion to the Patriot cause. Williams led militia in a number of battles. I suspect that this petition was provided prior to Williams’ elevation to the rank of Brigadier General following the Battle of Musgrove Mill, which was fought in what is now Laurens County. Williams had been accused of puffing his role in the battle. Williams went on to die at Kings Mountain -- one of the few Patriot casualties that day on October 7, 1780. Williams had run for the South Carolina legislature as a Patriot in 1778, only to lose to Robert Cunningham, the infamous Loyalist leader. For more on Williams, see Draper, “Kings Mountain and Its Heroes,? (Cincinnati, 1883). Signers of the Williams petition include the following Adairs: Isaac Adair, Jms. Adair, James Adair, Sr., Joseph Adair, Jr., Joseph Adair, Benjamin Adair, Joseph Adair, Sr., James Adair, Jr, son of James, William Adair, John Adair, and John Adair, Sr., and Alexander Adair. Comparing deed and will records to the names, Brownlee identifies the Adair signers [copies Brownlee’s explanations]. Brownlee’s identifications look very logical to me.
      "The Laurens County Adair Tree:
      1. James Adair m. Eleanor: 150a land grant to James Adair-same date as Joseph 250a. Both referred to in records as coopers (barrel makers). James, cooper in LCD F/8,9,10, A/185. Eleanor released right of dower on deed dated 2/12/1796; date of transfer by James was 2/24/1784. Which deeds correspond with which dates? See Joseph below. Eleanor was also witness on deed from William Price and wife, Margaret to James Adair, son of James, 2/6/1792.
      1.1 Joseph Adair m. Sarah Dillard [Surname Dillard is a Jett addition and I don't believe proven even though many LDS lines use this as well without documentation.]: Joseph Adair, Jr. to Wm. Holland, 120 ac. Release of dower by Sarah, wife of Joseph Jr., and Eleanor, widow of James Adair, dec'd, LCD F/109. Suggests land owned by James m. to Eleanor, but how does it correspond to land grants? If land belonged to Joseph junior by intestacy laws, why wasn't James m. to Hannah on deed, too? LCD G/570 has dower release for Sarah Adair, wife of Joseph.
      1.1.1 Thomas Adair m. Rebecca Brown: LCD H/22, Joseph Adair of Duncan Creek to eldest son Thomas Adair. Witness Jane Adair. Dower releases for Rebecca in LCD H/129, H/209, and land purchased H/228.
      1.1.2 ?Hannah m. John Jones: see F/8,9,10. 8 & 9: 8/1/1795. 10: 2/25/1784. F/10 is deed from James Sr. and wife Eleanor to John Jones, has witnesses James Adair, saddler, and James Adair, Jr. [Without giving a reason, Jett places Hannah as a possible daughter of Joseph, son of James; however, Brownlee indicates she believes her to be a daughter of the original James and Eleanor which would make her a sister to Joseph son of James. Perhaps a typo on Jett's part.]
      1.2 James Adair m. Hannah: Corresponds to James son of James in the Williams petition per Brownlee. James m. Rebecca had a son James, but probably not old enough to sign petition as James m. Rebecca born 1747 per Indiana tombstone. Petition 1780 would mean James m. Rebecca was 33 in 1780; doubtful his son James could be of fighting age. Compare to Adair compilation. LCD M/77-78 reports death of James Adair, Sr., widow Hannah. Hannah Adair’s will LCW F/65, proven 1826. James 115(2) 1790 Census. 2 daughters not accounted for. James Jr. was under 16 according to this census.
      1.2.1 Elizabeth m. James? Parlmore (Palmer): LCD M/77-78
      1.2.2 Mary m. John Prather: LCD M/77-78 Susannah Prather (Prater?): Witness on will of Hannah LCW F/65. Hannah Prather m. Joseph Dollar Linny m. William Prather Archibald m, Susannah Meadors Martha Prather Betsy/Priscilla Prather m. Daniel Owens James Prather Mary (Molly) Prather Bryce Prather Elinor Prather
      1.2.3 Nelly (Eleanor) m. Ramage: LCD M/77-78, LCW F/65. Benjamin Ramage John Jewell Ramage Washington Ramage
      1.2.4 James Adair Jr.: LCD M/77-78, LCW F/65.
      1.2.5 Hannah m. Rueben Meadors: LCD M/77-78, LCW F/65.
      1.2.6 Susannah m. William Cassels (Castles): LCD M/77-78, LCW F/65.
      1.2.7 Nancy m. Willis Langston: LCD M/77-78, LCW F/65.
      1.2.8 Martha m. Wm. Gamble: LCD M/77-78
      Patsey Gamble: LCW F/65."

      6. The book "Roster of South Carolina Patriots in the American Revolution," by Bobby Gilmer Moss, lists the following James Adairs, the first of whom is for probably this individual's son. I am not sure how the other James Adairs I list fit in or not. There were other James Adairs in South Carolina at the time and it was a common name among Adairs. Some information may be from more modern and perhaps undocumented family histories. I do not have the abbreviation list as to the sources the author gives:
      "James Adare, Sr., S9264, b. 8/15 May 1752, Bucks Co., Pennsylvania, d. 18 Aug 1818, m. Hannah ____. He entered the service during 1776, while residing in York District, and served under Capt. Frank Ross and Col. Neel. In the same year, he joined a unit under Capt. John McCool and Col. Hopkins. In 1777, he was under McCool and Hopkins and was wounded at Horseshoe Battle on War Woman Creek. He was discharged as a result. Later, he appears in Picken's brigade as one who recovered horses lost at Briar Creek. During 1782, he was under Capt. James Dillard, Col. Casey and Gen. Pickens. He supplied food for distressed widows and families for Casey's unit ans was a wagon master for Col. James Williams from 29 March to 20 May 1780. A.A. 21; Patriot Index."
      Other James Adairs:
      "James Adare. He served 120 days in the militia under Gen. Marion during 1780 and 1781. At one time, he was under Lt. Col. Hugh Horry. Kinsfolk, 1269,; A.A. 21; S350; Y1522."
      "James Adair, Jr., b. c. 1755, d. July 1835, m. Anna ____. He served in the militia. Patriot Index."

      6. The following is found in the book "A History of the Baptists," by Robert G. Torbet, p. 228: "The central and western counties of North Carolina were fertile soil for evangelism, with twenty to thirty thousand inhabitants in 1755, followed by a steady stream of settlers who were attracted there by land grants and the state of freedom existing there."

      7. On file with me are early plats drawings of Duncan Creek prepared by Lee Adair.
      From Lee Adair 13 Sep 2005 [wadair1@tampabay.rr.com]: "I have platted most of the available deed surveys up to 1846 for the Duncan Creek area of Laurens County using the software Deedmapper. The problems with such deed platting are: 1) surveyors weren't always accurate; 2) the terrain was not perfectly flat. In acquiring all the plats, I also had to acquire all the deed records and land transactions and I now have the Laurens County deed books up to Book O (about 1846). These two sources allowed me to place surveys in about the correct positions on the map. I am aided in this by the several rivers and creeks that run through the county and which are platted on the surveys. If there are any specific plats that you need, I can make copies of them and send them to you. One file (Duncan3.jpg) is included to provide a bearing. In the lower left is what looks like the streets of a city. This is Clinton. The interstate running diagonally across this image is I-26. The Duncan Creek Cemetery is located where the D in the text for Duncan Creek Cemetery is.
      One of the properties of Joseph Adair (wife Sarah) is in bright blue just to the right and adjoining that of James Adair (bright yellow). It was a SC land grant that he received in 1786. He sold that with the adjoining property of Samuel Ewing that he had purchased to William Holland in 1796. Whether he and Sarah actually lived there is an open question. The bright blue large tract owned by Joseph Adair is that of Joseph Adair Sr. wife Sarah Laferty. There may be additonal properties of Joseph Adair and Sarah, but I have not placed them yet. There are a number of Joseph Adair properties in which I don't have a reliable spouse name. As always there is more work to be done."

      From Lee Adair 16 Oct 2005 with more on the specific James Adair plat just above Joseph Adair, the cooper, who gave part of his land to Joseph his son who married Sarah ___ : "The property description for the James Adair plat that I sent is as follows:
      SC Memorial Book 13, p. 230. 2 Jan 1775. James Adair, Sr., a Memorial on 200 acres in 96 Distr. on Duncins (sic) Creek between Broad and Saludy Rivers, bounded W on John Brotherton; NW on James Montgomery, NW on John McCrary; NW on John Adair; SE on Saml. Ewing. Survey certified 3 Jun 1773; granted 11 Aug 1774. Quit rent in 2 years. John Rodgers, DS. Delivered 14 Aug 1775 to James Adair.
      150 acres of this property was later sold to John Jones (wife Hannah) in 1784.
      The date alone suggests that this is most likely James Adair, wife Eleanor, and this is
      confirmed by the following two deed book entries:
      Laurens Co. Deed Book F, p. 10. 24 Feb 1784. James Adair Senior and wife Eleanor to John Jones blacksmith 150 acres.) Witnesses: James Adair sadler, James Adair Jr., James Miller, Roger Brown.
      We know that this is part of the 200 acre James Adair grant because of the following:
      Laurens Co. Deed Book F, p. 8. 1 Aug 1795. Hannah Jones (widow of John Jones) & son William Jones to John Craig, 50 acres on Duncan Creek, part of 200 acre grant to James Adair Sr. 11 Aug 1774 (150 acres conveyed in by sd J.A and Eleanor in 1784 to John Jones). Bordering properties: John Montgomery, Alexander Fillson, John Owens.
      I have attached a zoomed out version of the Duncan Creek plat area."

      8. James Adair as listed below could be either the original James Adair the cooper, the son of this same James, or the son of the original Joseph Adair the cooper. The death date of the original James Adair the cooper is unknown. Laurens County Estate Book A-1:
      P. 7: “Will of Hanse Miller being sick and weak of body… 14 April 1788. Wit: Joseph Adair, Thomas Ewings, James Adair.?
      Pp. 98-100: "An account of the sale of the Estate of Joseph Greer decd., 15 of August 1794; purchasers: Andrew McCrary, Joseph Greer, Joseph Adair, John Hansel, Saml McComuthey, Thos McCrary, Joseph Greer, Wm Hunter, John Login, John Elmore, Minasa Willson, Benj. Adair, Newton Higgins, John Grary, Robert Scott, John Owens, James Rammage, Hugh Skelton, Saml Bishop, James Dillard, John Rammage, James Dillard, Robert Grier, Bazzel Brater (cooper tooles), James Adair Senr., John Watson, Simon Tedford, Jonas Greer, J.A. Elmore, George Ross, Ben Adair, Joseph Parkes, Wm Price, Wm Gray, Robert Greer. Total ₤ 56 13 9."
      Pp. 210-213: ""Memorandum of articles sold the estate of John Jones decd, 16 Jul 1784 by Patrick Bryant admr. Purchasers: John Adair, James Dillard, James Adair, Philip Harvey, Littleberry Harvey, Patrick Bryant, Samuel Ewing, Wm Price, John Gorley, Philip Harvey, Thomas Donaldson, John Huston, John Owens, John Robeson, John Rammage, David Simpson, Thomas Hughs, John Robinson, Reuben Pyles, Haunner Miller, Thos Ewin, Jas Saxon, Wm Brown; copy from my office Julius Nichols Junr. [This estate was probated originally in Ninety Six District, the papers of which are in Abbeville County Court House]."

      9. Excerpts of “Adairs? from the book “Laurens County South Carolina - Minutes of the County Court, 1786-1789,? by Brent H. Holcomb, SCMAR, Columbia, South Carolina, 2004. The book notes: “This is a record that has only been recently found after being lost for so many years. It is incomplete missing the first 54 pages, pages 103-126, and an unknown number of pages at the end of the volume. There is at least one other volume, still missing, covering the years 1790-1799.nutes are small court cases, lists of deeds presented to be recorded, applications for administrations on estates and wills proved (beginning in 1787), jury lists, petitions of various kinds, appointments for various offices, apprenticeships, estray animals tolled, and other items. The cases heard for debt or damages could not exceed £50, and cases heard for personal damages could not exceed £20. Criminal cases heard could not call for the loss of life or corporal punishment. Larger court cases were heard in the district courts, such as Ninety-Six.?
      The Adair records mention mainly James and Joseph Adair -- the only problem was there were at least three Josephs and three James who were all adults at the same time as these court records. The two original brothers, James and Joseph Adair, both coopers by trade, arrived in the Laurens County area probably in the early 1760s. James was born ca 1715 and died in Laurens Co. sometime between 1784 and 1796. Joseph was born ca. 1718 and died after Jan 9, 1788 when his will was written. James had at least two sons who were alive in the time period of these court records: Joseph (ca. 1745 - ca. 1820) who married Sarah and James (1752-1818) who married Hannah. The other original brother, Joseph whose first wife was Sarah Lafferty and second wife Susannah Murdough, widow of Daniel Long, had at least three sons, Joseph (1735-1812), James (1747-1831) whose trade is noted as “saddler?, and Benjamin (1752/1754-1823/1825). Generally speaking, the eldest living Adair of a given name was given the suffix of Sr. or no suffix at all while the younger Adairs were noted as Jr. or “son of? -- in some cases an uncle could be a “Srer. The citations could be a mix of all. The following are just the James Adair quotations:
      Pg. 63, 16 Mar 1786: “A Lease and Release for the Conveyance of 60 acres of Land from John Brotherton to James Adair Proven in open Court by the oath of Thomas Ewing & ordered to be Recorded.?
      Pg. 68, 18 Mar 1786: James Adair was on a jury in the case of Robert McNees Plt vs. John Martin Deft concerning debt.
      Pg. 70, 18 Mar 1786: James Adair was on a jury in the case of George Caldwell Plt vs David Allison Deft concerning debt.
      Pg. 73, 18 Mar 1786: “James Adair Plt vs Thos Hughes and Charles Saxon Deft. In Debt. Came the Plt by James Yancey his Attorney and the Defts in their proper Person and Confessed Judgment for £1 s15 d10¼ sterl’g. Thereupon it is Considered by the Court that the Plt. recover against the s’d Defts his Debt aforesaid and his cost by him in this behalf Expended and the s’d Deft in Mercy &c.?
      Clerk fees £ 11
      Sheriffs fees 3 6
      Attorney’s fees 14
      £ 8 6
      Pg. 88,13 June 1786: “A Lease and release for the conveyance of 110 acres of land from Mary Hillon and John Hillon to James Adair proven in open court by the Oaths of George Ross and John Cammel & Ordered to be recorded.?
      Pg. 88,13 June 1786: “A lease and release for the conveyance of 140 acres of land from Mary Hill and John Hillon to John Cammel proven in open court by the oaths of George Ross and James Adair & ordered to be recorded.?
      Pg. 96, 16 June 1786: “James Adair vs Jonth’n Gilbert. Debt S.P. By Consent of the parties this suit is ordered to be Continued till next Court.?
      Pg. 98, June 16, 1786: “James Adair vs Thos Persons. Attachment. Trover. This day came the Plaintiff by J. Yancey his Atty and the attachment being Returned Executed, and the Deft not Replevied by appearance or put in special bail tho solemnly called, on motion of the Plaintiff by his atty aforesaid it is ordered that Judgment be entered for the Plt for what damages he hath sustaind by Accation of the Trover & Convertion in the Declaration mentioned to be Inquired of by a Jury unless the Defendant shall appear and Plead to Issue at the next court.? [Kerry’s note: the case just before this was for exactly the same thing for James Montgomery vs Thos Persons.]
      Pg. 134, 14 Dec 1786: “David Wlch Plft. vs John Barnet Deft. In Debt. By consent of the Parties by their attys they have mutually submitted the Determination for this Suit to Nathan Barksdale, James Adair, and Charles Simmons and agreed that their award thereupon should be made the Judgement of the Court, which s’d aware was Ordered to be Returned into Court Immediately.?
      Pp. 148-149, 13 Mar 1787: James Adair was sworn as Grand Juror for the county.
      Pg. 149, 13 Mar 1787: James Adair participated as a Grand Juror in the case State vs. Mansfield Walker and John Blackwell. Indictment for Sabbath braking.
      Pg. 152, 14 Mar 1787: “James Adair vs. Henry Johnston & David Simpson. By consent this suit is ordered to be dismist at Plfts. Cost.?
      Pg. 159, 16 Mar 1787: “James Adair vs. Thomas Pearson. This day came the Plft by his Attys and the attachment being returned execution on 300 acres of land the Property of Deft and the said Deft not appearing to Replevy the same or Plead to the Plfts Declaration agreeable to a former Order of this Court, Therefore upon a Jury to wit [jury named]… upon their oaths do say that the Plft hath Sustained by accation of the Trespass in the Declaration mentioned, upon their oaths do say that the Plft hath Sustained Damages by accation thereof to s note: There were three exact same cases against Thomas Pearson with James Montgomery, James Adair, and Joseph Adair as individual plaintiffs with all three in sequence.]
      Pg. 165, 12 June 1787: “James Adair, son of James Adair, is appointed Overseer of that Part of the highway leading from Hughes’s mill on Enoree and James Young’s on Bush River in the room of Tho’s Ewing. Ordered that he cause the free male inhabitants and slaves contiguous to and convenient to said road, to work thereon and to cause the same to be kept in repair for one year as the law directs.?
      Pg. 215, 11 Mar 1788: “A power of Att’o from James Templeton to James Adair proven in Open Court by the oath of John Lindsey and Ordered to Ly for further proof.?
      Pg. 216, 12 Mar 1788: “A Lease and Release for the conveyance of 100 acres of land from Thomas Allison to James Adair acknowledged in Open Court and Ordered to be Recorded.?
      Pg. 301, 12 Mar 1789: John D. Kern vs Charles Hutchings. In Case. This day came the parties by their attorneys & thereupon Came also a Jury [jury named] upon their oaths say that the Deft is not Guilty on fhe Nonperformance of the promises & assumptions in the Declaration mentioned & that he go hence without day and Recover against the s’d Plft his Cost by him in this behalf expended, Whereupon it was ordered accordingly.
      On application made on oath by James Adair a witness in said suit, ordered that the Plft pay him the sum of 35/ for 14 days attendance at 2/6 P’r day.
      Also Joseph Adair the sum of 32/ for 13 days attendance at 2/6 P’r day.?
      Pg. 324, 18 Sep 1789: “James Adair vs. James Miller. In Slander. By consent this suit is ordered to be Dismist at Deft’s cost.?
      Pg. 326, 18 Sep 1789: James Adair was drawn as a petty juror.
      Pg. 317, 15 Sep 1789: “James Adair vs. Eliphaz Riley. S. Process Debt. Continued by Consent till next court.?
      Pg. 322, 17 Sep 1789: “James Adair vs. Eliphaz Riley. By Consent of the Parties ordered that a Commission issue directed to John Calloway Smith and Wm Robertson Esq’r or any other Justices of the County of Wintown (sic, for Winton) to take the Examination of John Wild a witness for the Deft he giving the adverse party Ten days previous notice of the Time and place of s’d Examination & Return a Certificate of the same to our next Court Together with this commission.?
      Pg 331, 16 Dec 1789: James Adair vs. Eliphaz Riley. S. Process debt. This day came the Parties by their attorneys & thereupon came also a Jury [jury named] upon their oaths do say that the Plft take nothing by his bill but for his false Clamour be in Mercy &c & that the Deft Go hence without day & recover against the s’d Pft his cost by him in this behalf Expended &C.?
      Pg. 334, 16 Dec 1789: “The last will and testament of Joseph Adair Dec’d was presented in open court by James Adair the Ex’r and proven by the oath of James Montgomery and Ordered to be Recorded. Ordered that a Probate thereof issue in due form &c.
      Ordered that a warrant of Appraisement Issue to four freeholders of this county to View and appraise the estate of the s’d Jo’s Adair Decd & Return an account of the same to the Ext’r within the Time Prescribed by Law.?

      1. Typescript “Early Adairs of Laurens County, South Carolina. Compiled by Mildred Brownlee; Source Records: Wills; Intestate Estates; Deeds; Court Records; Cemetery Inscriptions. Some dates of birth and death obtained from Lineage Charts. Dates of birth and death subject to correction. Spelling of names subject to correction." [Note that bracketed comments are later additions by other reviewers including myself - Kerry Petersen.]:
      A. "SC Archives, Council Journal 34 p. 39, 2 Feb. 1768 - Petitions for Warrants of Survey:
      James Adair - 150 a. - Waters of Duncan Creek - granted 1768 (James was noted as James, Sr. up to his death.)
      Joseph Adair - 250 a. - Waters of Duncan Creek
      Council Journal 34, p. 236, 7 Dec. 1768 - Petitions to Prolong Warrants:
      Joseph Adair - 250 a. - on Duncan Creek
      His 250 a. was granted in 1770 (where Duncan Creek Church now stands). Joseph Adair sold this grant in 1778 to Benjamin Adair. (Deed Bk. A, p. 189)
      The above is the first record for Joseph Adair, Sr., cooper, found in Laurens Co. [NB: this is incorrect. Joseph Adair petitioned for 200 acres on the Waters of the Santee [Council Journal of 3 Dec 1766, p. 874]. The Memorial for this property reads as follows: A Memorial exhibited by Joseph Adair, 200 acres of a Plantation or tract of land contg. 200 acres situate in Berkly County on the So. side of Enoree River on a branch thereof called Millers Creek bounded Ewardly on land of Frances McCall, and on all other sides on vacant land. Survey certified the 7th of March 1769 (Plat Book 9, p. 341) and granted the 2nd day of June 1769 to the memorialist. Quit rent to commence two years hence. SC Memorial Book 8, p. 482. 9 Sep 1769]. James Adair who petitioned for land on the same date as Joseph is possibly the James Adair who married Eleanor and who had died in Laurens Co. prior to 12 Feb. 1796. Early deeds refer to him as James Adair, cooper . His 150 a. grant is evidently the one shown on Union Co. Land Grant map #4 and #12 on a branch of Duncan Creek which is called McCall's Branch on map #4. Other early maps refer to this branch as Miller's Fork. On present day maps it is called Sand Creek. . .NE of Clinton, in the area between Hwy. 72 and Hwy. 98. Since available deeds do not make clear the disposition of the above 150 a., there is still some uncertainty that the grant was to James Adair, wife Eleanor; however, it is certain that he was in Laurens Co. 11 Aug. 1774 when he received a grant of 200 a. on a branch of Duncan Creek. Land Grant map #4 says granted in 1770 but deeds say 1774; this grant lying between the main branch of Duncan and Philson's Crossroad, and very near to Joseph Adair, Sr.'s original grant.
      Since both Joseph Adair and James Adair have been identified as coopers and they both petitioned for land on the same date, it seems logical to think that they were brothers. (Dr. James Adair's History states that James Adair, Indian trader, was a brother of Joseph Adair, Sr. but extensive research on the Indian trader does not substantiate the claim.)
      Council Journal 34 should be consulted for any other possible information which might be contained in the land petitions of Joseph and James Adair in 1768.
      The exact year that Joseph Adair arrived in South Carolina has not been determined. He was in Lancaster Co., Pa. in 1759 when he was given Power-of-Attorney to sell land for John, Josiah, and Jennet Ramage. In his History of the Presbyterian Church in SC, George Howe, D.D. states that in 1763 or 1766, Joseph Adair, Thomas Ewing, Wm. Hanna, and the McCrearys had united in building a house of worship. The June 9, 1896 issue of The Laurens Advertiser has an article about the 130th. anniversary of Duncan Creek Presbyterian Church which was “organized in summer of 1766".

      B. "JAMES ADAIR, SR., cooper, & ELEANOR, his wife. As stated on p. 1, it has not been definitely determined that this James Adair was the one who petitioned for land along with Joseph Adair, cooper, in 1767; however, he has been documented as the James Adair who received a grant of 200 a. on Duncan Creek 11 Aug. 1774. Surety for this grant was certified 3 June 1773, so James Adair was in Laurens Co. before that date, (See Deed Bk. F, pp. 8,9,10).
      He is also considered to have been the James Adair, cooper, to whom John Brotherton and wife, Esther, sold in 1774, 60 a. on a spring branch of Duncan Creek. (See Deed Bk. A, p. 185.)
      Birth date of James Adair, Sr., cooper, is not known. He died sometime between 24 Feb. 1784 (date of deed to John Jones, blacksmith) and 12 Feb. 1796 (date of deed to which Eleanor, widow of James Adair. dec'd, released her right of dower.). Birthdate of Eleanor Adair is unknown; last record of her is also 12 Feb. 1796, release of dower. On 6 Feb. 1792, she was witness to a deed from William Price and wife Margaret, to James Adair, son of James.
      James Adair, Sr. left no will in Laurens Co. No estate papers have been located in Laurens Co. Eleanor Adair left no will or estate papers in Laurens Co. Data from Laurens Co. deeds indicate that a son of James and Eleanor was Joseph Adair.
      Deed Bk. F, p. 109 - 12 Feb. 1796, Joseph Adair, Jr. to Wm. Holland, 120 a. on a small branch of Duncan Creek. N on John McCreary now John A. Elmore, SW by John Adair now Benj. Adair, S by me, a grant of 2 Oct, 1786; the other plantation of 100 a. purchased from Samuel Ewing 16 Dec. 1778, part of 150 a. grant to Samuel Ewing 30 Sept. 1774, Joining the above tract.
      Wit: B.H. Saxon Joseph Adair, Jr.*
      JA Elmore
      Basil Holland
      Release of dower: Sarah Adair, wife of Joseph Adair, Jr.
      Eleanor(x)Adair. Widow of James Adair, dec’d.
      {*Joseph Adair called “Jr.? to distinguish from Joseph Adair, son of Joseph Adair, cooper, who was at that time called Joseph Adair, "Sr.?, after the death of his father in 1789.)
      Deed Bk, G, p. 570 - 7 Jan. 1803, Joseph Adair, planter, to John Daniel Kern of Charleston, merchant, 86 a. on N side of Duncan Creek, adj. said J. D. Kern. N 10, W 40, S 30, etc, on Joseph Adair line, S 80, E ??, etc. on Mistres ?Musgrove (seems error for "Mistress Montgomery?).
      Wit: Thomas Martin, Tailor Joseph Adair
      William Dabbage
      Release of Dower: Sarah Adair, wife of Joseph Adair, Jr.
      Eleanor (x) Adair, widow of James Adair, dec’d."

      2. American Revolutionary War Stories involving Mangum and Adair Families in Laurens County Area of South Carolina:
      In John Mangum the Patriot’s application for his American Rev. War pension, he mentions serving with several of the following commanders. He specifically states he was with Col. Joseph Hayes when he was killed and that he received a wound under the hands of the Tory leader William Cunningham aka “Bloody Bill.? The following accounts help understand John’s and the Adair family’s patriotic commitment and puts some flesh to names. See separate notes in the Adair family notes for John Mangum’s Adair family comrades in arms who signed the James Williams Petition which would mean that the Adair and Mangum families probably first came in contact both knowing and serving under James Williams. Both modern Laurens and adjoining Newberry Counties were in the old District Ninety Six of South Carolina.
      a. “A Laurens County Sketchbook,? by Julian Stevenson Bolick, FHL book 975.731-H2b, p. 9, in speaking of the American Revolutionary War: “The people, cut off as they were from the coast and seat of government [kp note: at Charles Town or Charleston as it was later known], were not aware of the many grievances of the colonists toward the mother country. Naturally, in the months to follow, many of the Up Country people remained loyal to England, and particularly those who had been given large grants by the king. These people became known as Tories, and a gentleman’s agreement was reached among some of the colonists whereby the Tories in the Carolina "Back Country" should remain in a state of neutrality. Since this agreement was made without the knowledge of Robert Cunningham, a man of high esteem and immense influence among his neighbors in Ninety Six District, he did not feel bound by the agreement. Thus, he continued to urge opposition to the revolutionary movement to the point of being apprehended on an occasion by a group of men dressed as Indians. Learning of Robert’s proposed confinement in Charles Town, his brother Patrick gathered a body of friends and set out
      in pursuit of the group. The pursuers failed to overtake the first group, but Patrick and his men learned of, and captured, 1000 pounds of powder being sent as a present to the Cherokee Indians by the governor. Because of the proximity of the Cherokees, it was customary to make gifts from time to time to the Cherokee Nation to encourage friendship. An amount of gunpowder, included with cloth and trinkets, was intended to be only enough to meet the Indians’ needs for hunting, and not a sufficient quantity to incite them to attack the settlers...
      “Unbiased recounting of history must include here the distatasteful authority and influence exerted by two Tory leaders over their followers in dealing with their enemies, the Whigs [kp note: pro-revolution]. The two ‘Bloody Bills’, William Bates and William Cunningham, headed the list of atrocities... Cunningham... belonged to one of the best families in the province. A cousin of Robert and Patrick Cunningham, Bill was the only member of the family to depart from its high standard of chivalry and honor... William was a Whig at the beginning of the struggle... William was ordered to the Low Country, was whipped for some minor offense and was placed in chains. His work of pillage and murder apparently was a retributive vengeance on those who had wronged him, especially his former commander in arms.
      “So, the good citizens and the bad citizens were divided in their partisanship. Before the end of hostilities, the great plantations where
      hospitality had been dispensed in generous and gracious manner were closed to friendship because of divided loyalties and sympathies. These homes included White Hall, home of Andrew Williamson; Rosemont and Peach Hill, Cunningham seats and Mount Pleasant, owned by James Williams. In many cases, animosity continued. In the election of 1778, Colonel Williams and Cunningham engaged in gentlemanly fisticuffs, in which the wife of the Colonel seized Cunningham by his queue before friends could come between them. The fact that Cunningham was elected to office was evidence of the strong Tory influence in the district. It will be recollected here that Robert Cunningham had been arrested by Colonel James Williams in 1775 and sent to Charles Town, where he refused to recognize the authority of the Provincial Congress. His arrest created indignation in the “Back Country?, and three years later his friends gave full support to his candidacy.
      “Logan’s History of the ‘Upper Country of South Carolina’ characterizes this area as reek. While the armed forces on the coast had been occupied with the defense of Fort Moultrie, the western frontier of the state had become ablaze with Indians on the warpath [kp note: the neutrality of the Indians was broken when the British and their allies could use strong persuasion]. Inhabitants along the Saluda River had taken refuge in an old fort known as Lyndley’s, located on Rabun Creek. Early morning of July 15, 1776, 88 Indians and 102 white men attacked the safety station. Major
      Jonathan Downes with 150 men had arrived at the station the evening before. The latter were on a mission to join forces with Major Williamson in an effort to suppress the Indians who erroneously had been told that their gift of gunpowder and lead captured so recently would be used by the Whigs to kill them. The attack on the fort was repulsed and thirteen prisoners, all whites dressed as Indians, were sent to Ninety Six for confinement.
      "On another occasion, Major Downes, commanding a small force of Whigs, happened to come upon an armed aggregation of Indians in the Scuffletown area. Tradition says that the Major overcame the Indian chief in a hand-to-hand fight, and that he took off his suspenders, tied the Indian’s hands behind his back and left the fighting field with the captured chieftain astride Downes’ horse.
      “In August of 1780, the Battle of Musgrove’s Mill was fought about twelve miles north of the present city of Laurens on the Enoree River. Major Downes again served gallantly; in this encounter was, also, Colonel Joseph Hayes, who was among those massacred at Hayes Station the following year. In the home of Major Edward Musgrove a garrison of 500 British troops maintained headquarters,. They were regimented soldiers retrained by platoons. The Major, too old for active duty, remained neutral in his sympathies; but his family took a very active part with sons fighting on both sides. On that August day the Whigs took up position within one mile of the mill and were in the process of planning an attack when a skirmish between a British patrol and a Whig reconnaissance group brought the entire British garrison to the scene. Young Captain Shadrack Inman asked permission to take 25 men and act as a decoy to draw the Tories into a three-pronged trap formed by force commanded by Colonel Isaac Shelby on the right, Colonel Elijah Clarke on the left and Colonel James Williams in the center. Shadrack Inman was shot seven times following the retreating British. A simple stone marks the
      spot where he fell.
      “The battle is said to have been one of the hardest ever fought in the county with small arms alone ‘...the smoke so thick as to hide a man at a distance of twenty rods. With the aid of Tories, the British had hoped for a quick victory in the South; instead they suffered heavy losses and their strength in South Carolina’s Up Country had been badly shaken.
      “November, 1781, will be remembered as a month of terror for the Whigs and their families in the Ninety Six District at the hands of William Cunningham, who had left Charles Town in August for the purpose of inflicting punishment on the Whigs. Crossing Saluda River, ‘Bloody Bill’ and his band of 300 ruthless followers attacked Hayes Inn, a station which before had been known as Edge Hill, on the stagecoach route through this part of the Up Country. The exact date of this attack is not known, but McCrady in his ‘History of South Carolina in the Revolution’ traces the movements of the group of Tories. On November 7, 1781 thirty Whigs had taken refuge in an unfinished log house without door or windows on a small stream called Cloud’s Creek in Edgefield County. Two of the thirty escaped, the
      rest being slaughtered after they had surrendered. Mr. McCrady states ‘it was a fine morning after the massacre at Cloud’s Creek, when at ten o’clock a party led by John Hood rode up to the station (Edge Hill) at full gallop...’ Hayes Inn was burned by shooting out of a musket a ramrod tipped with flax, saturated in tar and set afire. The flaming roof caused suffocation and terror among those inside. “Captain Daniel Williams, with a group of patriots, had rested overnight at the inn. The Captain, only eighteen years of age, and Colonel Joseph Hayes, owner and operator of the inn, were promptly hanged from a pole of the fodder stack. The pole broke; and Cunningham, continuing the cruelty with gave him the name ‘Bloody Bill,’ cut the half strangled men to pieces with his sword. The encounter is recorded as ‘Hayes Station Massacre,’ a terrifying experience related by the one survivor...
      “It was such odious treatment of human beings that prompted General Nathanael Greene of the Whig side to make the following declaration: ‘The inhabitants hunt one another like wild beasts. If a stop cannot be put to these massacres, the country will be depopulated in a few more months, as neither Whig nor Tory can live.? In the District of Ninety Six alone, there were 1400 hundred widows and orphans as a result of the war.?

      3. James Williams Petition listing the Adair family Patriots. Note that Thomas Adair’s parents are the ones listed as number 4 (Joseph and Sarah) and his grandparents are number 3 (James and Eleanor). Most of the other Adairs were brothers or cousins. The petition has come to me from Mildred Brownlee’s manuscript “Early Adairs of Laurens County, South Carolina" and also from the "South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research," vol. 15, p. 32. James Williams was one of the most renown Patriots of the Laurens area and this listing of signers of the petition of the area gives us a good source of patriots also associated with him. Col. James Williams and Capt. Josiah Greer were also military leaders of many of these same individuals during the 1778 American invasion of British East Florida per the source of Doctor George Ross' medical reimbursement papers quoted in this database under Rebecca Montgomery's notes. This petition typescript is item #5767, Manuscript Dept., Wm. M. Perkins Library at Duke University, Durham NC. Submitted by Mrs. Mary Ann McCrary and published with permission of the Manuscript Dept. This petition pre-dates the Battle of Kings Mountain (7 Oct 1780), as Col. James Williams was killed at that time. [NB: a second version of the petition was located in the South Carolina Library in 1999 and the gaps in the Duke University petition were filled in as indicated by brackets.] {Any notes or comments added by me are in these brackets.}
      "To his Excellen[cy John Rutledge, E]sq. Governor & Commander in Chief in & [over th]e state of South Carolina, the Honourable the privy Counsel, the Honourable the Senate & House of Representatives in General Assembly.
      Whereas we (the zealous friends to our country, and to all who love and distinguish themselves in her cause) do understand & are exceeding sorry to hear that there are false & [evilly designing] Accusations either lying on or about to shortly be laid against James Williams, our present Colonel in & over Little River Regiment, and designed (as we believe) by the private Enemies of our country to deprive us of so worthy a friend of his Country in general a good officer to us in particular & thereby do a very singular Piece of Service to the common enemies of America. We do briefly & anxiously remonstrate this: that we experimentally know Colo. James Williams to have been a zealous Patriot from the commencement of the America contest with Briten; and to have always stood foremost in every occasion when called upon to the defence of his country. We do further declare that we have never known said Colo. [Jas.].Williams to distress any individuals in the Regiment who voluntarily & judiciously, when legally called upon and commanded to the field, have turned out in the Defence if their Native Rights & Privileges together with that of their Country; & we do avow it from our knowledge,